2.2 How Much is the World Warming?
2.2.2 Temperature in the Instrumental Record for Land and Oceans
22.214.171.124 Land-surface air temperature
126.96.36.199 Sea surface temperature and ocean air temperature
188.8.131.52 Land and sea combined
184.108.40.206 Are the land and ocean surface temperature changes mutually consistent?
220.127.116.11 Sub-surface ocean temperatures and salinities
2.2.3 Temperature of the Upper Air
2.2.4 How do Surface and Upper Air Temperature Variations Compare?
2.2.5 Changes in the Cryosphere
18.104.22.168 Snow cover, including snowfall
22.214.171.124 Sea-ice extent and thickness
126.96.36.199 Mountain glaciers
188.8.131.52 Lake and river ice
2.2.6 Are the Retreat of Glaciers, Sea Ice, and Snow Cover Consistent with the Surface Temperature Trends?
2.3 Is the Recent Warming Unusual?
2.3.2 Temperature of the Past 1,000 Years
184.108.40.206 Palaeoclimate proxy indicators
220.127.116.11 Multi-proxy synthesis of recent temperature change
2.3.3 Was there a “Little Ice Age” and a “Medieval Warm Period”?
2.3.4 Volcanic and Solar Effects in the Recent Record
2.4 How Rapidly did Climate Change in the Distant Past?
2.4.2 How Stable was the Holocene Climate?
2.4.3 How Fast did Climate Change during the Glacial Period?
2.4.4 How Stable was the Previous Inter-glacial?
2.5 How have Precipitation and Atmospheric Moisture Changed?
2.5.2 Changes in Precipitation and Related Variables
2.5.3 Water Vapour
18.104.22.168 Surface water vapour
22.214.171.124 Lower-tropospheric water vapour
126.96.36.199 Upper-tropospheric and lower-stratospheric water vapour
2.6 Are the Atmospheric/Oceanic Circulations Changing?
2.6.2 El Niño-Southern Oscillation and Tropical/Extra-tropical Interaction
2.6.3 Decadal to Inter-decadal Pacific Oscillation, and the North Pacific Oscillation
2.6.5 The Northern Hemisphere, excluding the North Pacific Ocean
2.6.6 The Southern Hemisphere
2.7 Has Climate Variability, or have Climate Extremes, Changed?
2.7.2 Is There Evidence for Changes in Variability or Extremes?
2.7.3 Is There Evidence for Changes in Extreme Weather or Climate Events?
188.8.131.52 Tropical cyclones
184.108.40.206 Extra-tropical cyclones
220.127.116.11 Droughts and wet spells
18.104.22.168 Tornadoes, hail and other severe local weather
2.8 Are the Observed Trends Internally Consistent?
Co-ordinating Lead Author
C.K. Folland, T.R. Karl
J.R. Christy, R.A. Clarke, G.V. Gruza, J. Jouzel, M.E. Mann, J. Oerlemans, M.J. Salinger, S.-W. Wang
J. Bates, M. Burgess, M. Crowe, P. Frich, P. Groisman, J. Hurrell, P. Jones, D. Parker, T. Peterson, D. Robinson, J. Walsh,
M. Abbott, L. Alexander, H. Alexandersson, R. Allan, R. Alley, P. Ambenje, P. Arkin, L. Bajuk, R. Balling,
M.Y. Bardin, R. Bradley, R. Brázdil, K.R. Briffa, H. Brooks, R.D. Brown, S. Brown, M. Brunet-India,
M. Cane, D. Changnon, S. Changnon, J. Cole, D. Collins, E. Cook, A. Dai, A. Douglas, B. Douglas,
J.C. Duplessy, D. Easterling, P. Englehart, R.E. Eskridge, D. Etheridge, D. Fisher, D. Gaffen, K. Gallo,
E. Genikhovich, D. Gong, G. Gutman, W. Haeberli, J. Haigh, J. Hansen, D. Hardy, S. Harrison, R. Heino,
K. Hennessy, W. Hogg, S. Huang, K. Hughen, M.K. Hughes, M. Hulme, H. Iskenderian, O.M. Johannessen,
D. Kaiser, D. Karoly, D. Kley, R. Knight, K. K. Kumar, K. Kunkel, M. Lal, C. Landsea, J. Lawrimore,
J. Lean, C. Leovy, S. Levitus, H. Lins, R. Livezey, K.M. Lugina, I. Macadam, J.A. Majorowicz, B. Manighetti,
J. Marengo, E. Mekis, M.W. Miles, A. Moberg, I. Mokhov, V. Morgan, L. Mysak, M. New, J. Norris,
L. Ogallo, J. Overpeck, T. Owen, D. Paillard, T. Palmer, C. Parkinson, C.R. Pfister, N. Plummer, H. Pollack,
C. Prentice, R. Quayle, E.Y. Rankova, N. Rayner, V.N. Razuvaev, G. Ren, J. Renwick, R. Reynolds,
D. Rind, A. Robock, R. Rosen, S. Rösner, R. Ross, D. Rothrock, J.M. Russell, M. Serreze, W.R. Skinner,
J. Slack, D.M. Smith, S. Smith, D. Stahle, M. Stendel, A. Sterin, T. Stocker, B. Sun, V. Swail, V. Thapliyal,
L. Thompson, W.J. Thompson, A. Timmermann, R. Toumi, K. Trenberth, H. Tuomenvirta, T. van Ommen,
D. Vaughan, K.Y. Vinnikov, U. von Grafenstein, H. von Storch, M. Vuille, P. Wadhams, J.M. Wallace,
S. Warren, W. White, P. Xie, P. Zhai
R. Hallgren, B. Nyenzi
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